Differences of parenting style between North America and Japan (日米の養育方法の比較)

Abstract:

Parenting is one of the chief element to grow children. There are many kinds of parenting, and these are different from family and country. Also, there is some difference of effect on the child. This paper focuses on two countries, Japan and North America of parenting style. Research have been conducted to compare definition, parenting styles, the best way, and positive and adverse effect on North America and Japanese parenting. Personality or characteristics are structured upon various influences. The method of this research is based on online articles and scientific articles to compare and analyze the parenting style, positive and adverse effect, and the best way of parenting. In North America, there are four parenting styles: Authoritarian, Authoritative, Permissive, and Uninvolved parenting style. There are four important dimensions of parenting: disciplinary strategies, warm and nurturance, communication styles, and expectations of maturity and control. The best parenting style is Authoritative for children to be independent, and to be good at problem-solving and emotional control. On the other hand, Japanese parenting style has strong connected with culture, and it is not categorized like North America. Japanese parents teach social manner, and the rule of collectivism society through parenting. There is positive and adverse effect such as child tend to become the faithful person, and they pretend well in front of parents. Furthermore, there is comparison research between North America and Japanese parenting style. Both parenting styles related to religion. North American parenting style connected to Christianity and Japanese parenting has roots of ancient Japanese folkways. Moreover, these are focused on different points because of difference in values; North American society emphasizes individualism and Japanese society orients more toward collectivism. As a result, the significant different between North America and Japanese parenting is a difference of cultural emphasis. Parenting styles appear to be configured by culture and society.

要旨:

本稿は、日米の養育方法の比較から、その本質の違いを考察したものである。性格や人格は様々な事柄の影響を受けて構築されていく。しつけもその重要な要素の一つであろう。養育の仕方とういうものは家庭、国によって様座であり、またそれぞれ子供に与える影響に違いがみられる。今回、日米の養育に焦点を絞り、独自の養育方法、最も効果的な養育方法、子供に与える影響について比較、考察をおこなう。先行研究を整理し、日米の養育の定義や方法を分類、分析し比較を行う。米国の養育は親の子への感情や扱い方からなる4つの次元に基づいて、養育方法が4つに分類されている。信頼的養育、権威的養育、寛容的養育と無関心的養育にはそれぞれ子供への影響に違いがある。 最も効果的な養育方法は信頼的養育であり、子どもに好影響のみ与える。一方日本の養育は分類されておらず、伝統や文化と深い関りがある。日本の養育は、しつけを通して、日本の集団主義的な文化の常識やマナーを指南する。これらのしつけは、親孝行や良い子を親の前でだけ演じるといった日本の特徴的な性格を構成する要因となっている。また、日米の養育比較研究では宗教や習俗、日本の集団主義的文化と米国の個人主義的文化の価値観と養育やしつけの深い繋がりを推断している。これらの結果から、社会性や文化がの養育方法に大きく関わっており日米の養育方法の違いも文化が主な要因であるとされる。養育方法は社会や文化によって形成されているが明らかになる。

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